Students should already be familiar with:

  • direct speech, or quotations
  • pronouns
  • question forms
  • time expressions
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Reported Speech

In spoken English, reported speech conveys the meaning of an earlier quote within a new context.  Here are 3 steps to go from direct speech to reported speech.

 
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Printouts

reported speech: step-by-step

perspective shifts

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Slideshow

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Bonus Notes

e.g.: Don't backshift speaking verb.

 
 
 
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Indirect Questions

Reported questions, formal inquiries, and polite requests all have a structure that's different from statements as well as from other questions.

 
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Printout

summary of indirect segments

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Slideshow

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Bonus Notes

e.g.: alternately, use 'asked to', 'wondered about', etc.

 
 
 
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Backshifting

Backshifting is a process of moving a verb expression backward in time.

We use it in REPORTED SPEECH and for UNREAL MOOD.

 
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Printouts

backshifting by verb tense

backshifting by aux. verb

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Slideshow

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Bonus Notes

e.g.: did backshifts to had

 
 
 
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Reporting Verbs

- coming soon -

 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Related Project

Class Newspaper:  Interview schoolmates and teachers, and report the important information you learned.

Read the whole project idea.