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Students should already be familiar with:

  • direct speech, or quotations

  • pronouns

  • question forms

  • time expressions

Indirect Speech Guide
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Reported Speech - video thumbnail.jpg

Reported Speech

In spoken English, reported speech conveys the meaning of an earlier quote within a new context. Here are 3 steps to go from direct speech to reported speech.

 
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Indirect Questions

Reported questions, formal inquiries, and polite requests all have a structure that's different from statements as well as from other questions.

 
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Backshifting

Backshifting is a process of moving a verb expression backward in time.

We use it in REPORTED SPEECH and for UNREAL MOOD.

 
 
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The Indirect Speech Guide includes:

Prerequisites in more detail

Printouts: 

  • Reported Speech: Step-by-Step

  • Perspective Shifts

  • Summary of Indirect Segments

  • Backshifting (1 by Verb Tense; 1 by Auxiliary Verb)

Slideshows for each video

Ancillary Topic on Reporting Verbs

about 40 Bonus Notes such as:

  • Don’t backshift the speaking verb.

  • ‘Did’ backshifts to ‘had’, and the next verb takes the V3 form.

Related Teaching Tips like Context Matters

Recommended Activities

and more!