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Past Perfect (in Narratives)

Past Perfect is often used in narratives when actions or events are told out of chronological order (like a flashback).  Past Perfect shows that the action/event had begun before the narrative context.

Students should already be familiar with:

  • past participles
  • Present Perfect
  • time expressions

- ADVANCED -


 

Reported Speech (aka Indirect Speech)

We use reported speech in spoken English more than we do direct speech.  But we're familiar with direct speech from written English.  Here's how to go from direct speech to reported speech in 3 steps.

Students should already be familiar with:

  • Direct Speech, or quotations
  • pronouns
  • time expressions

- INTERMEDIATE -

 

Forming Conditionals

There are different rules for using and forming zero, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd conditionals, but there's actually a pattern to it all.  If you learn the pattern, it'll make things much easier than trying to memorize the specifics for each type.

Students should already be familiar with:

  • complex sentences
  • Conditionals usage (if-then scenarios)
  • modal verbs

- INTERMEDIATE -