Indirect Speech

Notes on Reported Speech:

- interrogatives and imperatives have a different format

- there are more speaking verbs beyond 'said'

- point-of-view words should remain relative

Notes on Backshifting:

- usually don't change main verb

- did backshifts to had

- multi-word modals shift

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Perfect Tenses

Notes on Present Perfect:

have -> 've  /  has -> 's

- for negatives, we use haven't and hasn't

- since marks the start; for expresses the duration

Next in the Series:

- Present Perfect Continuous

- Past Perfect


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tensesErik Arndt
Clauses (Relatives and More)

Notes on Relative Clauses:

- defining clauses don't have commas, and relative pronouns can be replaces with 'that'

- sometimes we add prepositions before relative pronouns

 - choosing the right pronoun can be complicated

Next in the Series:

- Intro to Clauses

- Advanced Relative Clauses

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ESL Basics

Notes on Past Basic:

- Address common mistakes made by elementary learners.

- The rule applies to each verb phrase.

- Change only the first of multiple helping verbs.

- Applies to all past forms

What's Next...

- ... in the ESL Fundamentals Series

- ... in the Past Tense Series


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tenses, ESL basicsErik Arndt
the Passive series

Notes on the Passive Voice:

- it doesn't work for objects of a preposition

- the order of phrases after the verb is flexible

- news headlines omit to be

- and more

Next in the Series:

- Passive Voice: Verb Transformations

- Passive Adjectives


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