Reporting Verbs

Check out this page after you've gone through the Reported Speech page. Here are more ways that you can retell what someone else (or yourself) said earlier.

There are more reporting verbs than ‘said’. However, nearly all of them have different structures. Most are followed by Full Infinitives (to verb) or by Active Participle Clauses (verbing), which makes them Verb Patterns. Others are followed by Content Clauses (a type of embedded clause) with the word ‘that’ acting as the crux which binds the two clauses together.  The method taught in the Reported Speech page falls into this last category.

verbs followed by FULL INFINITIVES

agree
claim
demand
offer
promise
refuse
say
threaten

verbs followed by FULL INFINITIVES

advise ___
allow ___
ask ___
beg ___
convince ___
dare ___
encourage ___
forbid ___
invite ___
order ___
permit ___
persuade ___
remind ___
tell ___
warn ___

verbs followed by PARTICIPLES

accuse ___ of
apologize for
admit (to)
complain about
deny
discuss
encourage
forbid
insist on
mention
permit
recommend
report
suggest

verbs followed by 'THAT', then a clause

agree
claim
demand
offer
promise
refuse
say
threaten

In the blanks (___) are where an indirect object should go, probably the person originally addressed. For the Participles column, adding an indirect object later is generally optional.

The advantage that these reporting verbs have over ‘said’ is that they give us more information about how the original speaker expressed their thoughts and what their intention likely was.

Keep on Learning; Keep on Teaching

Reported Speech

To learn the three steps of forming Reported Speech (using content clauses) out of Direct Speech, check this video out.
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Gerunds

Gerunds are active participles used in noun form, and it could be argued that the whole 'Participle' list above applies to Gerunds.
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