Auxiliary Verb - a word that only exists in relation to the main verb; it can alter the voice, aspect (progressive and/or perfect), or modality of the verb string

Active - taking action or initiating a state or event

Agent - the noun that does the verb; in the active voice, ‘agent’ and ‘subject’ are synonymous

Backshifting - the process of altering the tense of a verb to reflect a change in context or to express uncertainty or the unreal mood

Base Form - the form of a verb before any changes are made because of the subject, tense, etc.; the form of a word featured in a dictionary

Category Noun - a generic noun offered as part of a question – immediately after the ‘wh’ word – when asking for a more specific noun or for determiners to specify which noun; the corresponding term we use for adjectives or adverbs is ‘broad modifier’

Clause - a set of properly-ordered words containing a subject and a verb phrase that are in agreement with one another, as well as any other words that are connected with either the subject or the verb phrase

Complement - a word or phrase needed to complete a thought; includes direct objects, indirect objects, predicate nominals, predicate adjectives, and the verbals of verb patterns

Complex Sentence - a sentence composing of two or more clauses and in which one clause (the embedded clause) resides within another (the main clause)

Compound - the combination of two words to create a new word of unique meaning; there may be a space, hyphen, or nothing between the two components; the last component determines the compound word’s part -of-speech

Compound Sentence - a sentence composing of two or more clauses that are not entwined with one another but rather are joined by a conjunction

Condition - the circumstance that must be true in order for something else to also be true

Context - the set of circumstances surrounding a clause and perhaps the setting in which it takes place or in which it is expressed

Contraction - the combination of two words into one whereby the latter is missing some of its letters, replaced by an apostrophe

Declarative - the structure of statements; the ‘default’ sentence type; typically ordered as subject/action-verb/object or subject/linking-verb/complement

Direct (Speech; Questions) - in which the form matches the meaning; the expected response may be literal

Form - the way a word, phrase, or clause is constructed; may include suffixes, spelling, word order, word compounding, etc.; the written or verbal properties that determine or identify the grammar point

Gerund - a word that has a verb as its base and ends with -ing, and that takes the role of a noun while retaining the properties of a verb

Helping Verb - see Auxiliary Verb

Imperative - the structure of commands; typically lacks a subject, and the verb is in infinitive (base) form

Infinitive - the base form of a verb; full infinitives have ‘to’ before the verb, while bare infinitives do not

Infinitive Phrase - a group of words that begins with an infinitive and in which the rest of the words are complements of that infinitive verb; the phrase can serve the role of a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb

Interrogative - the structure of questions; most types undergo subject-auxiliary inversion

Inversion, Subject-Auxiliary - the swapping of the subject and the auxiliary verb in the order of a sentence so that the auxiliary verb comes before the subject (commonly used in some question types)

Irregular Plurals - plural forms of nouns that are not created simply by adding ‘s’ or ‘es’ at the end of the singular form

Irregular Verbs - verbs that have past forms that are not created simply by adding ‘ed’ to the end of the present form

Linker - the word at the beginning of an embedded clause that introduces it into the main clause and determines its role within the main clause

Linking Verb - a verb that does not perform any action but rather connects a subject noun with an adjective (called a predicate adjective) or with another noun (called a predicate nominal)

Main Verb - a verb that can stand on its own in some contexts and is the action or state that the subject of its sentence does or has

Modal Verb - a type of auxiliary verb used to express possibilities, expectations, permissions, obligations, abilities, and tendencies, as opposed to stating what is; may or may not imply unreal mood

Modifier - a word, phrase, or clause that either describes or defines/specifies another word; an adjective or adverb

Modify - to enhance meaning within the context, either by describing or by defining/specifying

Mood - the attitude a speaker infuses a sentence concerning the matter of that sentence; the structural category regarding what the speaker believes, knows, or does not know; the modality of modal verbs applied to an entire sentence

Negative - a sentence structure in which ‘not’ or ‘never’ is used

Object, Direct - a target noun to which the verb is directly applied

Object, Indirect - a noun that is affected by the verb, even though the verb does not act directly upon it

Part of Speech - the role that a word or phrase fulfills within a sentence; roles include nominals (nouns & pronouns), verbs, modifiers (determiners, adjectives, & adverbs), and connectors (prepositions & conjunctions), and interjections

Participle - an altered verb which in its new form either can alter the qualities of the verb (aspect, tense, or voice) or can act as a different part of speech such as a noun, adjective, or adverb; participles can be active/present or passive/past

Participial Phrase - a group of words that begins with a participle and in which the rest of the words are complements of that participle verb; the phrase can serve the role of a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb

Passive - not taking action; perhaps receiving the effect of an action or state

Perspective - the way a person, the time, the place, etc. determine how something is experienced

Phrase - a group of words that come together to serve a single purpose and act as a unified part of speech within its sentence

Plural - designating more than 1 of that noun

Predicate - the parts of a sentence (or the grouping of those parts) that are not the subject or in the subject phrase; includes verbs and complements, such as objects

Preposition - a word that introduces a modifying phrase (called a prepositional phrase)

Point-of-View - see Perspective

Reported - stated after the fact; repeated in a manner that best reflects the meaning and context, rather than word-for-word

Reporting Verb - a verb that expresses how a past expression was said, thought, or implied and is followed by what was expressed

Sentence Structure - the order of grammatical elements within a sentence; different structures have different purposes and express different things; by default, we start with a simple, non-past, active, affirmative, declarative structure

Singular - designating only 1 of that noun

Speaker - the person who says, writes, or sometimes even thinks a given sentence

Subject - generally the most important noun of a sentence, the subject usually comes at the beginning of a sentence and is not affected by verbs or prepositions; in active sentences, the subject is the noun that does the verb

Suffix - a group of letters that can be applied to the ends of words of a particular part of speech and change it into another part of speech

Third-Person - a type of noun or pronoun that does not represent the speaker (‘I’, ‘me’), a group in which the speaker is included (‘we’, ‘us’), or the person whom the speaker is addressing (‘you’)

Time Expression - an adverb (word or phrase) that reveals when the verb takes place; can be absolute, relative, or sequential

Transitive Verb - a verb that requires a direct object to act upon; the opposite is an intransitive verb, which cannot have a direct object

Unreal - not believed to be necessarily real; may or may not be possible, but is not guaranteed to be real

Usage - the purpose or situations in which a grammatical point is used

Verb Phrase - all of the words within a phrase that are connected to the main verb, including auxiliary verbs, adverbs (whether single words or prepositional phrases), and objects (both direct and indirect)

Verb String - the combination of auxiliary verbs, main verbs, and key adverbs that work together within a clause

Verbal - a word whose meaning is based in a verb but that serves as a different part of speech, such as a noun or modifier

Voice - the type of relationship between a subject and its verb: in active voice, the subject is the agent that does the verb; in passive voice, the subject is the target of the verb and receives its effect